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Empowering Sustainable Change

  • Atlantica Miramare Beach Hotel 11 Amerikanas Germasogeia, Limassol Cyprus (map)

Emergence of Transforming Wellbeing Theory (TWT) Tutorial

This is the fourth sequential event succeeding the “Persuasive Urban Mobility” workshop in 2015, the “Empowering Cities for Sustainable Wellbeing” workshop in 2016, and the “Transforming Sociotech Design” tutorial in 2018. The number of participants has significantly grown over these events, which evidences their importance and relevance to the Persuasive Technology community, especially the conference participants. This upgraded tutorial will introduce and explain how the Transforming Wellbeing Theory (TWT) contributes to the Persuasive Technology (PT) research by extending our understanding beyond limitations of traditional behavioral change designs and interventions. This tutorial addresses highly important research direction that influences the future of PT and ways to properly and ethically design our ever-increasing technology-supported environments. The PT community will benefit from the advanced knowledge and immediate capacity of applying the fundamental strategies and frameworks to transform lives. The tutorial is instrumental for various contexts, including health, education, games, sustainability, safety, wellbeing, emergency, ecology, economy, and more.

Organizers

Importance

This is the fourth sequential event succeeding the “Persuasive Urban Mobility” workshop at the 10th International Conference on Persuasive Technology in Chicago, USA, the “Empowering Cities for Sustainable Wellbeing (ECSW)” workshop [14] at the 11th conference in Salzburg, Austria, and the “Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD)” tutorial [15] at the 13th conference in Waterloo, Canada. The number of participants has significantly grown to 18 over these events, which evidences their importance and relevance to the Persuasive Technology community, especially conference participants.

This upgraded tutorial will introduce and explain how the Transforming Wellbeing Theory (TWT) contributes to the Persuasive Technology (PT) research by extending our understanding beyond limitations of traditional behavioral change designs and interventions. The TWT reviews essential components for designing PT aimed at enabling sustainable transformations. This knowledge will empower the scholars and designers participating in this tutorial to create PT that make behavioral and attitudinal changes last. By definition, this tutorial will also transform the way participants see the potential of PT in attaining long-term permanent behavioral changes at all scales, be it at individual, group, or societal levels.

Motivation

Rapid evolution of PT [5] not only enables advanced innovations to emerge, but also requires to reconsider their effects on wellbeing [8-9, 13]. With novel technologies, such as artificial intelligence, smart sensing, blockchain, and automation, life changing transformations are inevitable. To succeed with these challenges, we have to be mindful about human nature playing its important role in every transformation. Research on human behavior provide principles that are applicable for creating PT that go beyond solely improving their own performance, thus assisting with behavioral and attitudinal shifts in everyone involved. The TWT unifies knowledge about designing transformative PT for wellbeing [16]. It explains how technological innovations can go beyond the limitations of traditional behavioral design and change management.

Organization

This tutorial is highly instrumental for researchers and practitioners designing PT, as it will provide and help internalize scientific frameworks for achieving permanent behavior change. The TWT will share a fundamental understanding of the PT components that are essential for designing successful transformations, known as Socially Influencing Systems [11], Computer-Supported Influence [10], Persuasive Cities [13], Persuasive Backfiring [12], Persuasive Design for Sustainability [7], and more.

Socially Influencing Systems [11] describe perpetual mechanisms to foster user motivation as compared to conventional methods, such as those that are based incentives and punishments. Socially Influencing Systems harness social influence from crowd behavior to craft influential messaging aimed at shifting behavior and attitude of an individual, who naturally is an integral part of the same crowd. Such continuous interplay can ultimately result in an ongoing process that has the capacity to transform lives without any other mechanisms.

Computer-Supported Influence [10] in the realm of PT distinguishes four types of persuasion, i.e. interpersonal persuasion, computer-mediated persuasion, computer-moderated persuasion, and human-computer persuasion. This framework outlines a sharper conceptual representation of the key terms in transforming design, drafts a structured approach for better understanding of the influence typology, and presents how computers can be moderators of social influence.

Persuasive Cities [13] aim at improving wellbeing across societies through applications of socio-psychological theories and their integration with conceptually new urban designs. This research presents an ecosystem of future cities, describes three generic groups of people depending on their susceptibility to PT, explains the process of defining behavior change, and provides tools for social engineering of Persuasive Cities.

Persuasive Backfiring [12] provides tools to aid academics and designers in the study of behavior change interventions that produce unintended negative outcomes, presents a taxonomy of backfiring causes, and describes an analytical approach containing the intention-outcome and likelihood-severity matrices. This framework also introduces and locates dark patterns within the PT research.

Persuasive Design for Sustainability [7] originates from two previously established frameworks of a cognitive dissonance model for persuasive design for sustainability and a system development lifecycle (SDLC) process in design for sustainability. The established SDLC of Persuasive Design for Sustainability introduces a novel methodology for designing solutions that confront the problems of developing a persuasive system that transforms behaviors towards a set goal like sustainability.

Outcome

This tutorial addresses highly important research direction that influences the future of PT and our ever-increasing technology-supported environments [13]. According to social sciences [1], environmental, personal, and behavioral factors are locked into triadic reciprocal determinism, meaning that all three are strongly interconnected and continuously reshaping each other. Thus, environmental design strongly influences the human behavior and attitude. In other words, quite often it is merely sufficient to improve our digitally-equipped spaces to achieve better lives and improved wellbeing [10]. This is a very powerful vision as it encompasses not only behavior change but also a potential transformation of human behavior at scale [16].

The TWT provides scientific knowledge that have been proven to be effective in helping to achieve permanent behavior changes and attitudinal transformations. This knowledge will be applied hands on to learn how to achieve transformations using real-life issues. The TWT will expand horizons of how the available frameworks connect, sometimes overlap, complement each other, and can be effectively combined to solve some of the most essential behavioral challenges we have today.

The PT community now can benefit from the advanced knowledge and immediate capacity of applying the fundamental strategies and frameworks to transform lives. The TWT is instrumental for various contexts, including health [3], education, games [6], sustainability [7], safety, wellbeing [8-9], emergency management, ecology, economy, and more. Ultimately, more refined scientific knowledge on how to design permanent behavior changes should be generated and translated into applicable guidelines to foster transformation for the betterment of our future.

References

  1. Bandura, A.: Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1986)

  2. Cacioppo, J. T., Cacioppo, S., Petty, R.E.: The Neuroscience of Persuasion: A Review with an Emphasis on Issues and Opportunities. Social Neuroscience, 1-44 (2017)

  3. Chatterjee, S., Price, A.: Healthy Living with Persuasive Technologies: Framework, Issues, and Challenges. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA) 16, 171–178 (2009)

  4. Kjær Christensen, A. K., Hasle, P. F.: Classical Rhetoric and a Limit to Persuasion. In: de Kort Y., IJsselsteijn W., Midden C., Eggen B., Fogg B.J. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 307-310. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

  5. Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann (2003)

  6. Fountoukidou, S., Ham, J., Midden, C., Matzat, U.: Using Tailoring to Increase the Effectiveness of a Persuasive Game-Based Training for Novel Technologies. Int. Work. Pers. Persuas. Technol. (2017)

  7. Mustaquim, M. M., Nyström, T.: A System Development Life Cycle for Persuasive Design for Sustainability. In: MacTavish, T., Basapur, S. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 9072, pp. 217–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

  8. Orji, R., Moffatt, K.: Persuasive Technology for Health and Wellness: State-of-the-Art and Emerging Trends. Health Informatics Journal (2016)

  9. Röderer, K., Reisinger, M. R., Stibe, A.: Well-Being in Persuasive Technology Research: A Systematic Review (forthcoming)

  10. Stibe, A.: Advancing Typology of Computer-Supported Influence: Moderation Effects in Socially Influencing Systems. In: MacTavish, T., Basapur, S. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 9072, pp. 251–262. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

  11. Stibe, A.: Towards a Framework for Socially Influencing Systems: Meta-Analysis of Four PLS-SEM Based Studies. In: MacTavish, T., Basapur, S. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 9072, pp. 171–182. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

  12. Stibe, A., Cugelman, B.: Persuasive Backfiring: When Behavior Change Interventions Trigger Unintended Negative Outcomes. In International Conference on Persuasive Technology, pp. 65-77. Springer (2016)

  13. Stibe, A., Larson, K.: Persuasive Cities for Sustainable Wellbeing: Quantified Communities. In International Conference on Mobile Web and Information Systems (MobiWIS), pp. 271-282. Springer International Publishing (2016)

  14. Stibe, A., Chatterjee, S., Schechtner, K., Wunsch, M., Millonig, A., Seer, S., Chin, R. C. C., Larson, K.: Empowering Cities for Sustainable Wellbeing. In: Meschtscherjakov, A., de Ruyter, B., Fuchsberger, V., Murer, M. (eds.) Adjunct Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, pp. 76–79 (2016)

  15. Stibe, A., Kjær Christensen, A. K., Nyström, T.: Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD). In: Ham J., Karapanos E., Morita P., Burns C. (eds) Adjunct Proceedings of Persuasive Technology (2018)

  16. Stibe, A.: Envisioning the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing: Influencing Technology and Sociotech Design. The 7th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). IEEE Conferences. Page 6. Keynote. June 10-14, 2018, Budva, Montenegro (2018)