Transforming Theory & Practice
Transforming Theory & Practice

Transforming Businesses Intelligently
Sep
20
5:30 PM17:30

Transforming Businesses Intelligently

Secrets of Human Behaviour and Attitude Change 

Strategically, we all constantly want to improve our businesses and their performances in so many ways. But do we really know the key drivers behind successful business transformations? Are we aware of the role of human behaviour and attitude in determining the chances of achieving permanent change for good?

The session will consist of a presentation and an interactive masterclass. Welcome everyone currently or thinking about:

  • managing people

  • managing processes that involve/depend on people

  • designing tech (UX, UI, HCI, AI, AR)

  • doing marketing (social media, consumer behaviour)

  • responsible for strategic change management

This thought-provoking talk will expand on beliefs about ways of how emerging technologies can transform businesses and societies today. This talk blends science and practice to help gain a richer understanding of how transformation works, what its essential components are, how to design and apply influential strategies, what novel technologies - artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and advanced sensing - are effective at facilitating change processes, and what to do first thing each morning. This knowledge is applicable in multiple domains, including but not limited to business, governance, health, sustainability, education, safety, security, equality, economy.

Masterclass

How to Succeed in Transforming Lives and Businesses?

Have you ever tried to change something in yourself or others? How many times you have had a New Year’s resolution that succeeds? Most of us strive to improve. However, we rarely get to celebrate victories in really transforming our habits, behaviours, and thoughts, thus changing our lives and businesses for good. The masterclass will provide a sharper understanding on how the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing empowers us to innovate in ways that will not only make our envisioned changes but also make those changes last. Most of us already want change for better. What we often miss is the knowledge of how to make such transformations succeed and stick. This masterclass will help you develop and internalise the necessary competencies.

Homework

Come and bring any of your real-life cases (using this Defining Transformation template) to the masterclass, so we can start transforming them right there. Ideally, email your cases before the masterclass.

View Event →
Transforming Wellbeing Theory
Sep
20
1:00 PM13:00

Transforming Wellbeing Theory

Permanently Shifting Human Behavior and Attitude

In this session, you will learn 8 transforming tools that you will be able to apply immediately to any of your challenges related to human behavior and attitude.

Have you ever tried to change something in yourself or others? How many times you have had a New Year’s resolution that succeeds? Most of us strive for better lives and try our best to achieve changes. However, we rarely get to celebrate victories in really transforming our habits, behaviors, and thoughts, thus changing our lives and businesses for good.

This session blends science and practice to help participants gaining rich understanding on how transformation works, what are its essential components, how to design and apply influential strategies, what novel technologies (e.g. artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and advanced sensing) are effectively facilitating change process, and what to do first thing each morning.

Most of us already want changes for better. What we oftentimes miss is to know how to make such transformations succeed. This session helps you develop and internalize the necessary competences.

View Event →
How to Make Technology-Enhanced Transformations Succeed?
Sep
14
11:10 AM11:10

How to Make Technology-Enhanced Transformations Succeed?

ADAPT’s 14th CIO Edge Experience 

As a CIO, you try to improve the performance your organization every day, right? Now, how frequently you got to celebrate victories in really transforming a process or a behavioral pattern at your workplace? Most of you already want changes for better. What you often miss is the knowledge of how to make such transformations succeed and stick.

This thought-provoking talk will expand on beliefs about ways of how emerging technologies can transform businesses today. It blends science and practice to help gain a richer understanding of how transformation works, what its essential components are, how to design and apply influential strategies, what novel technologies - artificial intelligence, augmented reality, advanced sensing, and autonomy - are effective at facilitating change processes, and what to do first thing each morning. This knowledge is applicable in multiple domains, including but not limited to business, governance, health, sustainability, education, safety, security, equality, and economy.

Insights from the Edge: Shaping New Business Paradigms and Creating the ‘Future of Work’

Moderator: Peter Hind – Senior Analyst

Panellists:

  • Scarlett Sieber – Global Innovation and Digital Transformation Thought-Leader

  • Darren Kerry – Director, Digital, Technology & OTT, Seven West Media

  • Prof. Agnis Stibe – Founder, transforms.me

Cognitive technology, enhanced connectivity, workflow tools, new talent models and enhanced data analytics are helping to create the future of work, today. By combining these developments with innovative business practices, organisations are pivoting from their traditional core functions, opening new opportunities, better utilising their talent and reducing costs. As a result, the lines between business units are blurring, staff responsibilities and work practices are evolving and work spaces are becoming centres for collaboration.

View Event →
Transforming Australia
Sep
14
to Sep 21

Transforming Australia

What Needs to be Transformed in Australia? 

Don't miss this unique opportunity to meet Prof. Agnis Stibe, a global expert in making transformation succeed. 

14-21 September 2018, Sydney.

Most of us strive for better lives and businesses, however rarely we get to celebrate victories of actual transformations of habits, behaviors, and thoughts.
 

Speaking to Your Audience

Prof. Agnis Stibe blends science and practice to help people gaining rich understanding on how transformation works, what are its essential components, how to design and apply influential strategies, what novel technologies (e.g. artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and advanced sensing) are effectively facilitating the change process, and what to do first thing each morning.

Coaching Your Managers

We want changes, but oftentimes we don't know how to make transformations succeed. Meeting Agnis will help you develop and internalize the necessary competences for revolutionizing your future.

Advising Your Executives

View Event →
Influence of Innovation on Societies
Jul
2
to Jul 3

Influence of Innovation on Societies

  • inNUEvation Innovation Conference (map)
  • Google Calendar ICS

#inNUEvation - Innovation Conference

Tuesday, July 3rd - International Innovation Symposium - #inNUEsymposium

9:00 #innovation

Introduction to the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing

Rapid digitization not only enable new businesses to emerge, but also pushes existing organizations to seek ways for sustaining their operations, making some companies to completely reconsider their visions and strategies. With the recent technological advancements, such as artificial intelligence, smart sensing, blockchain, and increased autonomy, business transformations are inevitable. To succeed with these envisioned changes, businesses have to be mindful about human nature that will always play its important role in every transformation. Luckily, the research on human behavior provide an impressive list of principles that are instrumental for creating novel technologies that go beyond solely improving business performance indicators, thus assisting with the necessary behavioral and attitudinal shifts in societies.

View Event →
What Transforms Us towards Wellbeing?
Jun
20
to Jun 21

What Transforms Us towards Wellbeing?

  • Discover new business opportunities. Discover Latvia. (map)
  • Google Calendar ICS

Latvia 100 Business Forum. Discover new business opportunities. Discover Latvia.

Keynote: What Transforms Us towards Wellbeing?

Do we think about our wellbeing at all? Yes, of course, we do. But when and how often do we really remember about its essential place in our lives? Do we keep wellbeing in our minds when we launch a car in the space, when we race for profit, or when we trade our cultures and values? What about our cities – the spaces many live in each day? Can urban forms augment human nature to help everyone transforming towards better lives?

This thought-provoking talk will expand beliefs about ways how emerging technologies can transform societies and businesses already today. It will provide sharper understanding on how the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing empowers us to create innovations that make our envisioned changes but also oftentimes inevitable changes last. The theory is applicable to multiple domains, including business, governance, health, sustainability, education, safety, security, equality, economy, and more.

Panel discussion: Creating Businesses as Part of Our Wellbeing

Masterclass: How to Succeed with Transforming Lives and Businesses?

Have you ever tried to change something in yourself or others? How many times you have had a New Year’s resolution that succeeds? Most of us strive for better lives and try our best to achieve changes. However, we rarely get to celebrate victories in really transforming our habits, behaviors, and thoughts, thus changing our lives and businesses for good. This masterclass blends science and practice to help participants gaining rich understanding on how transformation works, what are its essential components, how to design and apply influential strategies, what novel technologies (e.g. artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and advanced sensing) are effectively facilitating change process, and what to do first thing each morning. Most of us already want changes for better. What we oftentimes miss is to know how to make such transformations succeed. This masterclass will help you develop and internalize the necessary competences.

View Event →
Helping People to Succeed with Changes
Jun
18
to Jun 20

Helping People to Succeed with Changes

  • National Library of Latvia (map)
  • Google Calendar ICS

Engineering Sciences

Social Sciences

Business, innovation, public sector, education management

Transforming Sociotech Design: Helping People to Succeed with Changes

View Event →
Envisioning the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing
Jun
11
to Jun 13

Envisioning the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing

  • Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO 2018) (map)
  • Google Calendar ICS

Keynote at the 7th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO 2018)

Stibe, A. (2018). Envisioning the Theory of Transforming Wellbeing: Influencing Technology and Sociotech Design. The 7th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). IEEE Conferences. Page 6. Keynote. June 10-14, 2018, Budva, Montenegro. [PDF]

Rapid technological evolution not only enables advanced innovations to emerge, but also requires to reconsider their effects on wellbeing. With novel technologies, such as artificial intelligence, smart sensing, blockchain, and autonomy, life changing transformations are inevitable. To succeed with these challenges, we have to be mindful about human nature playing its important role in every transformation. Research on human behavior provide principles that are applicable for creating novel technologies that go beyond solely improving their own performance, thus assisting with behavioral and attitudinal shifts in everyone involved. The Theory of Transforming Wellbeing (TTW) unifies knowledge about designing transforming technologies for wellbeing. It explains how technological innovations can go beyond limitations of traditional behavioral design and change management. 

The TTW embodies fundamental understanding of the essentials for designing successful transformations, known as Transforming Sociotech Design [1], Typology of Computer-Supported Influence [2], Persuasive Cities [3], Socially Influencing Systems [4], and Dark Patterns [5]. The theory empowers researchers and practitioners to create technologies that makes behavioral and attitudinal changes last. To achieve desired results in transforming lives, TTW envisions to help by guiding through all related emerging trends, such as behavioral economics, gamification, nudging, and persuasive technology.

  1. Stibe, A., Kjær Christensen, A.K., & Nyström, T. (2018). Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD). In: Ham J., Karapanos E., Morita P., Burns C. (eds) Adjunct Proceedings of Persuasive Technology. PERSUASIVE 2018. [PDF]

  2. Stibe, A. (2015). Advancing Typology of Computer-Supported Influence: Moderation Effects in Socially Influencing Systems. In Persuasive Technology (pp. 253–264). Springer International Publishing [PDF]

  3. Stibe, A., & Larson, K. (2016). Persuasive Cities for Sustainable Wellbeing: Quantified Communities. In M. Younas et al. (eds.): Mobile Web and Intelligent Information Systems (MobiWIS 2016), LNCS 9847 (pp. 271–282) [PDF]

  4. Stibe, A. (2015). Towards a Framework for Socially Influencing Systems: Meta-Analysis of Four PLS-SEM Based Studies. In Persuasive Technology (pp. 172–183). Springer International Publishing [PDF]

  5. Stibe, A., & Cugelman, B. (2016). Persuasive Backfiring: When Behavior Change Interventions Trigger Unintended Negative Outcomes. In Persuasive Technology (pp. 65–77). Springer International Publishing [PDF]

View Event →
Invisible Money of Transforming Cities
May
31
to Jun 1

Invisible Money of Transforming Cities

What ensures sustainable urban living?

What is the invisible currency of our cities? What is the purpose of money? To improve your wellbeing, right? Today, novelties in urban design can easily blend technological advancements with human nature in cities to transform ways of directing invisible money flows towards our wellbeing.

View Event →
Uncovering Dark Patterns in Persuasive Technology
Apr
17
2:00 PM14:00

Uncovering Dark Patterns in Persuasive Technology

Welcome to the 'Uncovering Dark Patterns in Persuasive Technology' (#DPPT2018) Workshop

The dark patterns are interactive design patterns that influence technology users through deception or trickery, and which represent unethical applications of persuasive technology. However, our ability to identify dark patterns is limited, creating a situation where it is difficult to manage abuses of persuasive psychology, because it is difficult to even identify them. Although there are numerous practitioner taxonomies of dark patterns, there is no scientifically-based taxonomy available.

In this workshop, participants enjoyed an introduction to dark patterns, and an overview of the psychological mechanisms that drive them.

Intention-Outcome matrix adopted from Stibe and Cugelman.

Through participatory exercises, participants helped to identify the theoretical-underpinnings that drive dark patterns, and contribute to the development of a taxonomy of dark patterns, based on consensus within the scientific community. In the workshop, we formed working teams who reviewed the dark pattern taxonomy, looking for alternative theoretical explanations. Each working team participated in a group sorting exercise, designed to inform the development of a theoretically-framed taxonomy of dark patterns. All outputs of the workshop were captured, and used to advance this study towards validation of the taxonomy. After the workshops, the authors of this paper plan to incorporate all the advancements into the next stage of the research, which will feed into a subsequent paper on a taxonomy of dark patterns, addressing the identified research questions.

Agenda

13:30 Introduction (20 min)
13:50 Presentations (40 min)

14:30 Break (15 min)

14:45 Card Sorting (45 min)
15:30 Live Analysis of Card Sort (15 min)

15:45 Break (15 min)

16:00 Unifying Dark Patterns Taxonomy (30 min)
16:30 Presenting Unified Theory (20 min)
16:50 Award Ceremony (5 min)
16:55 Next Steps (5 min)

Organizers

Look forward to see you all on April 17, 2018, in Waterloo, ON, Canada:


Background

Dark patterns are interactive design patterns that influence technology users through deception, trickery or hostility, that make their lives difficult or contribute a negative impact, through intended or unintended design practices that represent unethical applications of persuasive technology [2]. Examples of dark patterns include getting people to purchase unnecessary insurance, signing up for products without knowing they are on recurring billing, exposing users to content that makes them feel bad about themselves in order to influence their behavior, environmental designs that are effectively ‘hostile’ to particular groups such as the homeless, cyclists or pedestrians. 

Industry professionals have raised public awareness of dark patterns, and have taken steps to identify, collect, and describe dark patterns. Their efforts have helped draw attention to dark patterns [6]. However, there is no comprehensive practitioner taxonomy, they tend to lack a strong theoretical basis, and the taxonomies put forward draw on colloquial terms, rather than frameworks typically employed by the behavioral sciences.

Importance

There is a practical need to develop a science-based taxonomy of dark patterns that makes stronger links to behavioral science principles [4]. The existing taxonomies [3] can be greatly improved, through taking a more systematic approach that better identifies the theoretical underpinnings. We extend our definition of persuasive technology beyond the digital to illustrate a long history of darkness in persuasion, our idea is that our taxonomy should be holistic and applicable to different persuasive contexts. As the Internet of Things reaches further into our lives by digitally connecting physical objects and infrastructures, the persuasive effects of smart cities, smart transport and smart homes are likely to be profound.

For this reason, we have been carrying out a systematic review of information about programs, apps, behavioral and environmental designs that may contain dark patterns. This study is aimed at improving our understanding of persuasive technology by better describing what dark patterns are, identifying their theoretical underpinnings, and developing precise definitions that will both describe how to identify them, and how to describe when they are being applied [5]. We are also considering the ethical status of dark patterns in persuasive technology [1].

Goals and Research Direction

This workshop will support two goals. First, it provides an opportunity for participants to share knowledge regarding dark patterns, expressed appropriately, for example using visual depictions where necessary, and to discuss the psychological principles that explain their persuasiveness. Second, it will use participatory method, not just to engage participants, but also, to advance this project's goals of developing a taxonomy of dark patterns, that is more rooted in the behavioral science, by making stronger links between theory and practice. Participants will also be equipped to consider whether the use of dark patterns is ever ethically acceptable.

For the workshop, we have prepared a list of research questions to be discussed and further investigated:

  • What taxonomy of dark patterns aligns with the behavioral sciences?

  • What are the psychological mechanism driving dark patterns?

  • How do dark patterns differ from anti-patterns (backfires, misfires, outcomes of poor design)?

  • Why do people believe a design pattern constitutes a dark pattern?

  • How to define the boundaries from persuasive to manipulative to coercive?

  • Are there shades of darkness, from grey to black? How do we detect instances of dark patterns?

  • When does a dark pattern and a psychological backfire overlap?

  • What are the emotional impacts of dark patterns?

Examples

We have gathered real-life examples from persuasive and environmental technology that we or our informants regard as dark. Arguably, whilst users still have choices, by linking these examples to behavioral theory we intend to show that unconscious processes are triggered first and more strongly than the conscious processes required to make informed choices. The balance of knowledge is asymmetric in favor of giving the provider more power.

Structure and Outcomes

The workshop will start with an introduction followed by presentations on cognate topics, designed to provide background for the interactive exercise, overall:

  • Ethics of persuasive technology,

  • Resistance against manipulative behavior (trust in source, oxytocin and emotion),

  • Grey areas in our understanding of dark patterns.

  • Taxonomy of dark patterns (overview sheet and cards),

  • Interactive classification exercise (like delphi or Q-method),

  • Review of the data, discuss, and clean up the taxonomy based on group consensus.

Prior to the workshop, our team will have completed a systematic review of dark patterns, collecting examples in narrative and visual format, drawing on academic and practitioner sources. These will be aggregated into a list, that includes both simple examples with clear links to persuasion theory, and those that are more complex and not as easy to identify. Using expert review and consensus building, our team will develop the first taxonomy, that links dark patterns to principles routinely used in behavioral science, based on a grounded theory methodology, finalized through an expert review and consensual agreement. The final output will be a list of dark patterns, linked to theory and with an example of each pattern. These will be printed onto cards, so that each table in the workshop will have a list of dark patterns.

In the workshops, we will form working teams who will review the dark pattern taxonomy, looking for alternative theoretical explanations. Each working team will participate in a group sorting exercise, designed to inform the development of a theoretically-framed taxonomy of dark patterns. All outputs of the workshop will be captured, and used to advance this study towards validation of the taxonomy. After the workshops, the authors of this paper will incorporate all the advancements into the next stage of the research, which will feed into a subsequent paper on a taxonomy of dark patterns, addressing the identified research questions.

References

  1. Berdichevsky, D., Neuenschwander, E.: Toward an Ethics of Persuasive Technology, Communications of the ACM, 42 (5), 51-58 (1999).

  2. Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann (2003).

  3. Spahn, A.: And Lead Us (not) into Persuasion…? Persuasive Technology and the Ethics of Communication. Science and Engineering Ethics, 18(4), 633-650 (2012).

  4. Stibe, A. and Cugelman, B.: Persuasive Backfiring: When Behavior Change Interventions Trigger Unintended Negative Outcomes. In International Conference on Persuasive Technology, pp. 65-77. Springer (2016).

  5. Verbeek, P.P.: Persuasive Technology and Moral Responsibility Toward an Ethical Framework for Persuasive Technologies. Persuasive, 6, 1-15 (2006).

  6. Zagal, J. P., Björk, S., Lewis, C.: Dark Patterns in the Design of Games. In Foundations of Digital Games (2013)

View Event →
Transforming Sociotech Design
Apr
17
9:00 AM09:00

Transforming Sociotech Design

Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD) Tutorial

Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD) tutorial covers conceptual frameworks for designing and evaluating Persuasive Technology (PT) aimed at achieving sustainable transformations of our lives towards wellbeing. The tutorial introduces and explains how TSD contributes to PT research by extending our understanding beyond limitations of traditional behavioral change designs and interventions.

Template

TSD embodies a fundamental understanding of the PT components that are essential for designing successful transformations, known as: 

  • Socially Influencing Systems

  • Computer-Supported Influence

  • Persuasive Cities

  • Persuasive Backfiring

  • Persuasive Design for Sustainability

This knowledge of TSD empowers the scholars and designers participating in this tutorial session to create PT that makes behavioral and attitudinal changes last. Moreover, the tutorial also shares the knowledge about strategies from rhetoric, psychology, and neuroscience that lead to attitudinal transformations. By definition, this tutorial also transforms the way participants see the potential of PT in attaining long-term permanent behavioral changes at all scales, be it at individual, group, or societal levels.

Everyone interested in creating innovations that successfully transform human behavior and attitude is welcome, especially PT researchers and practitioners, including designers, developers, user experience experts, psychologists, gamifyers, and nudging enthusiasts.

Agenda

9:00 Introduction
9:15 Defining Transformation
9:30 Transforming Sociotech Design

10:00 Break

10:15 Transforming Model
10:35  Socially Influencing Systems
10:55 Computer-Supported Influence

11:15 Break

11:30 Persuasive Cities
11:45 Persuasive Backfiring & Dark Patterns
12:00 Persuasive Design for Sustainability
12:15 Next Steps

Organizers


Motivation

Present knowledge on Persuasive Technology (PT) often reveals how behavior change designs and interventions are limited in sustaining their effects [6]. There is an increasing need for novel ways to create PT that helps people not only to achieve their goals, but also supports everyone to maintain their new habits. Such PT should ultimately empower people to succeed in their desired transformations. Therefore, this tutorial will cover conceptual frameworks for designing and evaluating PT aimed at achieving sustainable transformations of our lives towards wellbeing. The tutorial will introduce and explain how Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD) contributes to the existing PT knowledge by extending our understanding beyond limitations of traditional behavioral change designs and interventions.

Frameworks

This tutorial is highly instrumental for researchers and practitioners designing PT, as it will provide and help internalize scientific frameworks for achieving permanent behavior change. TSD embodies fundamental understanding of the PT components that are essential for designing successful transformations, known as Socially Influencing Systems [11], Computer-Supported Influence [10], Persuasive Cities [13], Persuasive Backfiring [12], and Persuasive Design for Sustainability [8].

Socially Influencing Systems

The framework of Socially Influencing Systems [11] describes perpetual mechanisms to foster user motivation as compared to conventional methods, such as those that are based incentives and punishments. Socially Influencing Systems harness social influence from crowd behavior to craft influential messaging aimed at shifting behavior and attitude of an individual, who naturally is an integral part of the same crowd. Such continuous interplay can ultimately result in an ongoing process that has the capacity to transform lives without any other mechanisms.

Computer-Supported Influence

The framework of Computer-Supported Influence [10] in the realm of PT distinguishes four types of persuasion, i.e. interpersonal persuasion, computer-mediated persuasion, computer-moderated persuasion, and human-computer persuasion. This framework outlines a sharper conceptual representation of the key terms in transforming design, drafts a structured approach for better understanding of the influence typology, and presents how computers can be moderators of social influence.

Persuasive Cities

The framework of Persuasive Cities [13] aims at improving wellbeing across societies through applications of socio-psychological theories and their integration with conceptually new urban designs. This research presents an ecosystem of future cities, describes three generic groups of people depending on their susceptibility to persuasive technology, explains the process of defining behavior change, and provides tools for social engineering of Persuasive Cities.

Persuasive Backfiring

The framework of Persuasive Backfiring [12] provides tools to aid academics and designers in the study of behavior change interventions that produce unintended negative outcomes, presents a taxonomy of backfiring causes, and describes an analytical approach containing the intention-outcome and likelihood-severity matrices. This framework also introduces and locates dark patterns within the PT research.

Persuasive Design for Sustainability

The framework on Persuasive Design for Sustainability [8] originates from two previously established frameworks of a cognitive dissonance model for persuasive design for sustainability and a system development lifecycle (SDLC) process in design for sustainability. The established SDLC of Persuasive Design for Sustainability introduces a novel methodology for designing solutions that confront the problems of developing a persuasive system that transforms behaviors towards a set goal like sustainability.

Impact

This tutorial will address highly important research direction that influences the future of PT and our ever-increasing technology-supported environments [13]. According to social sciences [1], environmental, personal, and behavioral factors are locked into triadic reciprocal determinism, meaning that all three are strongly interconnected and continuously reshaping each other. Thus, environmental design is a strong influencer on human behavior and attitude. In other words, quite often it is merely sufficient to improve our digitally-equipped spaces to achieve better lives [10]. This is a very powerful vision as it encompasses not only behavior change but also a potential transformation of human behavior at scale [13]. This collection of knowledge on TSD will empower the scholars and designers participating in this tutorial session to create PT that makes behavioral and attitudinal changes last. Moreover, the tutorial will share also knowledge about strategies from rhetoric [4], psychology [1, 5], neuroscience [2, 5], and social influence [11] that can lead to attitudinal transformation. By definition, this tutorial will also transform the way participants see the potential of PT in attaining long-term permanent behavioral changes at all scales, be it at individual, group, or societal levels.

Outcomes

The tutorial will provide participants with frameworks and models that has been proven to be effective in helping to achieve permanent behavior changes and attitudinal transformations. Knowledge about strategies from rhetoric [4], psychology [1, 5], neuroscience [2, 5], and social influence [11] will be put on the table for everyone to learn, experience, design, and apply. The strategies will be applied hands on to learn how to make a difference and achieve transformations using real-life issues. Participants will expand their horizons of how the various frameworks connect, sometimes overlap, complement each other, and can be effectively combined to solve some of the most essential behavioral challenges we have today.

The main outcome of this tutorial for our persuasive technology community members will be their more advanced knowledge about and immediate capacity of applying the fundamental strategies and frameworks for transforming lives. Outcomes of this tutorial are instrumental for various contexts, including health [3], eHealth [14], education, games [7], sustainability [8], safety, wellbeing [9], emergency management, ecology, and economy. Ultimately, more refined scientific knowledge on how to design permanent behavior changes will be generated and translated into applicable guidelines for our PT community to foster transformation for the betterment of our future.

Information technology and computer systems will be increasingly designed to change behavior and help achieve better lives [2-6]. TSD overviews and explains how various frameworks and models can help scholars and developers to create PT that facilitates desired transformative effects on users. Persuasive technologies [6] will reshape human behavior in countless ways and some will continue to misuse strategies and fail their responsibility towards the betterment of human lives. Thus, more effort has to be put into educating and training [7] researchers and designers not only with insights on how to change behavior, but also include the responsibility and ethical mindsets that should be followed.

Organizers

  • Prof. Agnis Stibe from the world-renowned MIT Media Lab will bring very fresh and novel way how to design transformation. He established research on future Persuasive Cities that encourage healthy and sustainable routines. Prof. Stibe believes that our world can become a better place thought purposefully designed urban spaces that successfully blend technological advancements with human nature. His research is built upon socio-psychological theories to design long-lasting transformations of our lives. Agnis is an active member of PT community, frequently speaking at annual conferences and effectively collaborating with industry. He has worked for a number of Fortune 100 companies such as Hewlett-Packard and Oracle. He has received awards from the MIT Media Lab, Nokia Foundation, and more.

  • Anne-Kathrine Kjær Christensen has studied persuasive design at Aalborg University (cum laude) and was part of the Persuasive Technology community e.g. participating with a presentation at Persuasive 2007 at Stanford University regarding an article she wrote with Prof. Per Hasle. Since graduation in 2008 she has worked for both public and private companies. She has been the owner of her own company Specifii for about 3 years. She has worked as product owner for Telenor on a large omnichannel project and as product owner for the shipping company DFDS. She has also worked with customer insight + customer experience for several companies e.g. Dating.dk. Anne frequently speaks about Persuasive Technology at different meetups and conferences in Denmark.

  • Tobias Nyström is a researcher and PhD candidate with expertise in business studies and information systems. Tobias recent research has focused on sustainability combined with universal design, gamification, open innovation, system design, and persuasive technology. One of his papers, co-written with Moyen Mustaquim, was accepted to and presented at the PT conference in Chicago, IL, USA, April 2015.

Supportive Materials

References

  1. Bandura, A.: Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1986)

  2. Cacioppo, J.T., Cacioppo, S., Petty, R.E.: The Neuroscience of Persuasion: A Review with an Emphasis on Issues and Opportunities. Social Neuroscience, 1-44 (2017)

  3. Chatterjee, S., Price, A.: Healthy Living with Persuasive Technologies: Framework, Issues, and Challenges. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA) 16, 171–178 (2009)

  4. Christensen, A.K.K., Hasle, P F.: Classical Rhetoric and a Limit to Persuasion. In: de Kort Y., IJsselsteijn W., Midden C., Eggen B., Fogg B.J. (eds) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 307-310. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

  5. Cugelman, B.: Digital Behavior Change Toolkit (iteration #), AlterSpark Corp. Toronto, Canada. www.alterspark.com (2015)

  6. Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann (2003)

  7. Fountoukidou, S., Ham, J., Midden, C., Matzat, U.: Using Tailoring to Increase the Effectiveness of a Persuasive Game-Based Training for Novel Technologies. Int. Work. Pers. Persuas. Technol. (2017)

  8. Mustaquim, M. M., Nyström, T.: A System Development Life Cycle for Persuasive Design for Sustainability. In: MacTavish, T., Basapur, S. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 9072, pp. 217–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

  9. Orji, R. and Moffatt, K.: Persuasive Technology for Health and Wellness: State-of-the-Art and Emerging Trends. Health Informatics Journal (2016)

  10. Stibe, A.: Advancing Typology of Computer-Supported Influence: Moderation Effects in Socially Influencing Systems. In: MacTavish, T., Basapur, S. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 9072, pp. 251–262. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

  11. Stibe, A.: Towards a Framework for Socially Influencing Systems: Meta-Analysis of Four PLS-SEM Based Studies. In: MacTavish, T., Basapur, S. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, LNCS, vol. 9072, pp. 171–182. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

  12. Stibe, A. and Cugelman, B.: Persuasive Backfiring: When Behavior Change Interventions Trigger Unintended Negative Outcomes. In International Conference on Persuasive Technology, pp. 65-77. Springer (2016)

  13. Stibe, A. and Larson, K.: Persuasive Cities for Sustainable Wellbeing: Quantified Communities. In International Conference on Mobile Web and Information Systems (MobiWIS), pp. 271-282. Springer International Publishing (2016)

  14. Van Velsen, L., Wentzel, J., Van Gemert-Pijnen, J. E.: Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach. JMIR research protocols, 2(1), (2013)

View Event →
Persuasive Technology: Making a Difference Together
Apr
17
9:00 AM09:00

Persuasive Technology: Making a Difference Together

Merged with the Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD) Tutorial

About

This workshop will discuss the research efforts that are being made aimed at changing human behavior and attitude. It will engage the persuasive technology community to jointly look at where do we stand and where do we want to go with the field. In 2018, it will be fifteen years since the seminal book on persuasive technology was published. Since then, already twelve annual conferences have been held on the topic. The Persuasive Technology community has attracted many young scholars and has kept very strong core of leading scientists in the area of research. At the same time, not all expectations have been met over the last decade. Therefore, the community needs to come together and discuss ways for natural expansion and strategic growth. We need acknowledge weaknesses in the area of behavior change interventions and seek for ways to overcome them.

This workshop will help facilitating discourses around human behavior, behavior change, early interventions for behavior change, persuasive technology, persuasive systems design, design with intent, personalized persuasion, behavior change support systems, health behavior change, socially influencing systems, user experience design for behavior change, computer-supported influence, and more. The workshop will discuss open questions, promote a healthy debate amongst academics, create strategic directions, and unify everyone around what’s essential for advancing the community in a fundamentally fresh and novel way.

Register

To register your participation, please visit the Transforming Sociotech Design (TSD) tutorial page.

Organizers

Look forward to see you all on April 17, 2018, in Waterloo, ON, Canada:


Opening

People have unique beliefs and values that shape up their personalities over time. However, not many act in accordance with their beliefs and values. It is not surprising to find a contradiction between peoples’ beliefs and actual actions. Such inconsistencies gave birth to the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance [1]. Indeed, it was this particular gap in peoples’ beliefs and actual actions that was recognized by academics, psychologists and researchers leading to the manifest role of Persuasive Technology to shape up human behavior.

Advancing

While several scholars studied human behavior and early interventions were designed to guide users through behavior change process [2,3], Brendryen and Kraft proposed that technology-based interventions had the potential to change people’s behaviors [4]. In 2003, Fogg introduced a new research area known as Persuasive Technology [5]. His work originates from Human Psychology and hence it is essential to understand the interplay between Psychology and Technology when interventions are developed to shape up human behavior. The research field of Persuasive Technology highlights the potential of technology as a tool for persuasion where the earlier acts both as a medium and a social actor [5]. Following Fogg’s work, researchers from around the globe started developing and analyzing persuasive technologies for a wide range of areas including but not limited to promotion of physical activity [6], saving energy [7], living happily [8], reducing soda consumption [9], managing mental disorders [10] and persuasive cities [11].

Learning from Success!

Available research largely provides evidence of learning from success. In other words, it is relatively hard to find scientific publications in the area of Persuasive Technology that highlight failures. This compels us to think whether we as researchers can learn from success only? Or is it so that our research settings are flawless that our research outcomes are always positive? It remains a fact that real knowledge is verified knowledge in a way that the knowledge base should be proven by intelligence or by (logical) evidence. Further, scholarly integrity in any research discipline demands that researchers should abstain from any unverified remarks [12]. In other words, we must disown biased and speculative results. We propose that the same should be practiced in the research field of Persuasive Technology. Persuasive Technology has received a great deal of attention from researchers who have developed stand-alone applications to promote desirable behaviors. However, a quick look at the previous proceedings indicates that researchers are still focused on application-driven studies with little attention to theoretical grounds. Hence there is a lack of balance between studying technologies and theories to support the work.

Bias?

Another area that calls for discussion is an evident lack of publications that has highlight failures. This is in line with a review of empirical studies by [13] who investigated a variety of persuasive information systems and reported that reviewed studies primarily reported fully positive and partially positive effects [13]. We argue that partial reason for absence of publications that report failures is because of publication bias that pertains to acceptance of only those manuscripts that have statistically significant level of results while all other submissions are more or less rejected. Similar reservations have also been put forward by [14].

This, in a way, is publication suppression that obstructs what could otherwise prove to be quality papers from being accepted. When it comes to Persuasive Technology this would result in serious inaccuracy rates in available literature. There is substantial evidence that convinces the existence of publication bias. Banks and colleagues propose that the degree of publication bias has grown to such an extent that available research results are unreliable of all research. Further, they highlight that publication bias is one of the greatest threats to the legitimacy of meta-analytic articles, which in turn are among the most significant instruments for advancing scientific research [14]. There could be several reasons for publication bias. One being authors’ decision. In simple terms, authors have more control of their data. A classic example would be a situation where authors would not submit their work because of small sample size, statistically insignificant results or because of findings that contradict previous research.

Heading Where?

The issue of publication bias applies to almost all the research disciplines and the research area of Persuasive Technology is no exception. Here, we would highlight another issue that is similar to publication bias. This critical issue is what we generally call as conflict of interest. If we go through the proceedings of all the conferences on Persuasive Technology, it becomes crystal clear that prominent names seem to appear both in the scientific committees as well as in the list of authors of accepted publications. This is a clear case of conflict of interest, one would argue. While there is no substitute for experience and we can never underestimate the contribution of senior researchers, yet it seems relatively clear that the research area of Persuasive Technology is in what might call as “rigid control” of a few. As an example, consider the International Conference on Persuasive Technology. One would notice that a high majority of Steering Committee remain the same and secondly, most of them have at least one paper published in the proceedings.

Outcomes

The proposed workshop aims to bring researchers together to a forum that facilitates constructive discussion and debate. The research area of Persuasive Technology is receiving increasing interest from across the globe and deservingly so. Yet it is observed that the audience at Persuasive Technology conferences revolves mainly around the same crowd with a few exceptions. It is anticipated that the workshop will provide an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to address the issue and come up with constructive recommendations leading to a change for the advancement of Persuasive Technology Community.

We welcome topics included but not limited to:

  • Theory-driven persuasive design

  • Publishing failures

  • Multidisciplinary contributions

  • Publication bias

  • Attracting larger audience

  • Strategic steering

References

  1. Festinger, L. A (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

  2. Revere, D., & Dunbar, P. J. (2001). Review of Computer-generated Outpatient Health Behavior Interventions Clinical Encounters “in Absentia”. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 8(1), 62-79.

  3. Reiter, E., Robertson, R., & Osman, L. M. (2003). Lessons from a failure: Generating tailored smoking cessation letters. Artificial Intelligence, 144(1), 41-58.

  4. Brendryen, H., & Kraft, P. (2008). Happy Ending: A randomized controlled trial of a digital multi‐media smoking cessation intervention. Addiction, 103(3), 478-484.

  5. Fogg, B. J. (2003). Computers as persuasive social actors.

  6. Toscos, T., Faber, A., An, S., & Gandhi, M. P. (2006, April). Chick clique: persuasive technology to motivate teenage girls to exercise. In CHI'06 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 1873-1878). ACM.

  7. Midden, C., & Ham, J. (2009, April). Using negative and positive social feedback from a robotic agent to save energy. In Proceedings of the 4th international conference on persuasive technology (p. 12). ACM.

  8. Chatterjee, S., & Price, A. (2009). Healthy living with persuasive technologies: framework, issues, and challenges. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(2), 171-178.

  9. Langrial, S., & Oinas-Kukkonen, H. (2012). Less fizzy drinks: a multi-method study of persuasive reminders. In Persuasive Technology. Design for Health and Safety (pp. 256-261). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Langrial, S., Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Lappalainen, P., & Lappalainen, R. (2014, May). Managing depression through a behavior change support system without face-to-face therapy. In International Conference on Persuasive Technology (pp. 155-166). Springer, Cham.

  11. Stibe, A., & Larson, K. (2016). Persuasive cities for sustainable wellbeing: quantified communities. In International Conference on Mobile Web and Information Systems (pp. 271-282). Springer International Publishing.

  12. Lakatos, I. (1976). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes (pp. 205-259). Springer Netherlands.

  13. Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Pakkanen, T. (2014). Do Persuasive Technologies Persuade?-A Review of Empirical Studies. In Persuasive Technology (pp. 118-136).

  14. Banks, G. C., Kepes, S., & McDaniel, M. A. (2012). Publication Bias: A call for improved meta‐analytic practice in the organizational sciences. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(2), 182-196.

  15. Available at: http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/why-science-needs-to-publish-negative-results/?utm_source=socialmedia&utm_medium=All&utm_campaign=Why%20Science%20Needs%20to%20Publish%20Negative%20Results&sf8382783=1. Accessed on April 15, 2015.

View Event →